Nutrient Information

“A wise man should consider that health is the greatest of human blessings.”
-Hippocrates

Socrates once said. “there is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.” Our actions should be guided by this statement, especially when our health of our horses health is concerned. When an illness strikes we rely on our doctors to cure us, however we fail to realize that “the cure” come from within. Nature has provided us with a wondrous immune system and all we have to do is feed this system and it will heal and maintain us for life.

Research has shown that each part of the body contains high concentrations of certain nutrients, A deficiency of those nutrients will cause the body part to malfunction and eventually break down – like dominos, other body parts will follow. If we do not give ourselves or our horses the proper nutrients, we can impair the body’s normal functions and cause great harm. Even if there are no signs of illness it doesn’t necessarily mean they are healthy, it simply may be that they are not exhibiting symptoms of illness. Often the owners don’t see the signs of deterioration as they are so subtle and develop so gradually that they go unnoticed until the problem becomes serious then they want a “quick fix” which may fix the symptoms however not the problem.

We decided to put this page together to help our customers and potential customers realize what we have in our supplement and what and how it works to promote the health of their horses. Most of the supplements and vitamin enriched “complete” feeds are not really what they say they are or you must feed 2-5 supplements to even come close to matching Total*s ingredients.

Total Supplements Equine Horse Supplement

Total Supplements Equine

  • Signs of Well Being

    • Good Energy, even in an old horse
    • Healthy skin and shiny coat
    • Bright clear eyes
    • Correct weight
    • No digestive problems
    • Increased fertility and live births
    • Improved feed efficiency
    • Greater disease resistance
    • Improved stamina & greater tolerance to weather extremes
    • Improved hemoglobin synthesis
    • Increased acid neutralization
    • Wounds heal quickly
    • Reduced fly population, no bot fly eggs in fall
    • Good temperament

  • Symptoms of Illness

    • Lethargy (poor energy or lack of energy)
    • Dry & scaly skin, bald patches, mane or tail loss, dull coat, lighter hair color
    • Dull, cloudy, or sunken eyes
    • Overweight or underweight
    • Recurring colic, chronic diarrhea, foul odor of manure, difficulty maintaining weight
    • Decreased fertility, hard breeders, aborted or immature foals
    • Decreased feed efficiency (undigested waste output increased)
    • Increased diseases and infections affecting the  usefulness of the horses
    • Less stamina & can not take the heat or cold
    • Decreased stamina, increased “burnout”, less stamina
    • More incidents of colic, ulcers, tying up, etc.
    • Wounds remain open, infected and scarring
    • Horse covered with bot fly eggs ( orange eggs on body of horse in fall)
    • Irritability

Many horses owners feed foods that are processed and/or cooked ( most senior feeds) which destroys most of the nutritional value. The use of pesticides and other toxins in the environment compromises the horses health along with the over use of antibiotics, both oral and injectable, the use of corticosteroids, vaccinations wormers and just the air we breath (smog and exhaust fumes). Much of the forages are stored outside in the elements and even if stored covered over a period of time the nutritional value is decreased. Good nutrition is the foundation of good health. There are books and much extensive information available, this is just a basic overview of what we have in our supplement and how it will help your four legged friends. Everyone needs the four basic nutrients – water, carbohydrates, protein and fats – as well as vitamins, minerals, enzymes and other micronutrients. The first four are the basis for a good diet, by getting the other nutrients – which are essential for life – the body can utilize the first four for maximum performance and functioning.

Biotin Calcium Choline Cobalt Copper Folate Iron Lysine Phosphorus Magnesium Manganese Probiotics Methionine Potassium Inositol Iodine Selenium Silicon Sodium Sulfur Vitamin K Vitamin A Vitamin B Complexes Vitamin D Vitamin E
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Zinc Zinc Proteinate Yeast Culture Glucosamine

Vitamins
Vitamins are essential to life – they regulate metabolism and assist the biochemical processes that release energy from digested food and are the foundation of body functions. Some are water soluble which cannot be stored in the body so therefore they must be taken into the body daily – includes Vitamin C and B-complexes. Fat soluble vitamins can be stored for longer periods of time in the body’s fatty tissue and liver – include vitamins A, D ,E, and K.

Vitamin A
Prevents night blindness and other eye problems and some skin disorders. Enhances immunity, helps to heal gastrointestinal ulcers, needed for the maintenance and repair of epithelial tissue (skin and mucous membranes) wound repair and enhances the reproductive system.

Important in the formation of bones, teeth, aids in fat storage and protects against colds, flu, respiratory infections and infections of the kidneys, bladder, lungs and mucous membranes.

Vitamin A in an antioxidant – helping to protect the cells against cancer and other diseases and necessary for new cell growth and slows aging. Protein cannot be utilized by the body without vitamin A.

A deficiency of vitamin A can cause dry hair, dry skin, air loss, scaling and bacterial and fungal infections of the skin. dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea, poor growth, fatigue and weight loss.

In dogs progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a genetic retinal eye disease common to all breeds and causes blindness and can lead to cataracts, but may be prevented and halted by the addition of vitamin A to the diets. To test for vitamin A deficiency pull out one of your dog’s hairs, if the hair has a sticky, goopy substance on the end, that is a strong indication your dog has a vitamin A deficiency.

Vitamin B Complexes
B vitamins help to maintain the health of nerves, skin, eyes, hair, liver, and mouth as well as healthy muscle tone in the gastrointestinal tract and proper brain function. They act as coenzymes, helping enzymes to react chemically with other substances and are involved in energy production. They may be useful for alleviating depression or anxiety and it has been found that hyperactivity and aggressiveness in horses and dogs can sometimes be remedied by B-complexes. Other indications for giving your dog or horse extra vitamins are during highly stressful situations such as traveling, separation anxiety, the show ring, during pregnancy and being a stressed mother. Sulfa drugs, hormone therapy, cortisone and drugs for high blood pressure rob you animal of some of the B-complex vitamins. These vitamins are very important for older horses because these nutrients are not as well absorbed as they age. Because B vitamins work together, a deficiency in one often indicates a deficiency in another.

  • 1. Vitamin B1 ( Thiamine)
    Thiamine enhances circulation and assists in blood formation, carbohydrate metabolism and production of hydrochloric acid which is important for proper digestion. It has a positive effect on energy, growth, normal appetite and learning capacity and is needed for proper muscle tone of the intestines, stomach and heart. Also, acts as an antioxidant, protecting the body from degenerative effects.
    Symptoms that can result from thiamine deficiency include constipation, edema, enlarged liver, fatigue, heart changes, irritability, labored breathing, loss of appetite, muscle atrophy, nervousness, poor coordination, weak and sore muscles and severe weight loss. Antibiotics, phenytoin (Dilantin- drug used to prevent seizures), sulfa drugs, antibiotics may decrease thiamine levels in the body and a high carbohydrate diet increases the need for thiamine.

  • 2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
    Riboflavin is necessary for red blood cell formation, anti-body production, cell respiration, and growth. It alleviates eye fatigue and is important in the prevention and treatment of cataracts. It aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, Together with vitamin A it maintains and improves the mucous membranes in the digestive tract. Riboflavin also facilitates the used of oxygen by the tissues of the skin, nails, and hair, eliminates dandruff, and helps the absorption of iron and vitamin B6. Consumption of adequate amounts or riboflavin is important during pregnancy because a lack of this vitamin can damage a developing fetus, it is needed for the metabolism of the amino acid tryptophan, which is converted into niacin in the body.

    Deficiency symptoms include cracks and sores at the corners of the mouth, eye disorders, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, skin lesions, dermatitis, dizziness, hair loss, insomnia, light sensitivity, poor digestion, retarded growth, and slowed mental response and stool eating. Strenuous exercise requires an increase in the need for riboflavin.

  • 3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
    Niacin is needed for proper circulation and healthy skin. It aids in the functioning of the nervous system, in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and in the production of hydrochloric acid for the digestive system. It is involved in the normal secretion of bile an stomach fluids and in the the synthesis of sex hormones. Other symptoms of niacin deficiency include canker sores, depression, diarrhea, fatigue, limb pain, loss of appetite, muscular weakness, skin eruptions and inflammation.

  • 4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
    Pantothenic Acid is known as “the anti-stress vitamin” – Pantothenic acid plays a role in the production of the adrenal hormones and the formation of antibodies, aids in vitamin utilization and helps to covert fats, carbohydrates and proteins into energy. It is required by all cells in the the body and is concentrated in the organs. It is also involved in the production of neurotransmitters This vitamin is an essential element of coenzyme A, a vital body chemical involved in many necessary metabolic functions. Pantothenic acid is also a stamina enhancer and prevents certain forms of anemia. It is needed for normal function of the gastrointestinal tract and may be helpful in treating depression and anxiety.

  • 5. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
    Pyridoxine is involved in more body functions than almost any other single nutrient affecting both physical and mental health. It is necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid and the absorption of fats and protein. It also aids in maintaining sodium and potassium balance and promotes red blood cell formations. it is required by the nervous system and is needed for normal brain function and for the synthesis of the nuclei acids, RNA and DNA, which contain the genetic instructions for the reproduction of all cells and for normal cellular growth. It activates many enzymes and aids in the absorption of vitamin B12, the immune system functions and in antibody production. Vitamin B6 plays a role cancer immunity and aids in the prevention of arteriosclerosis, acts as a mild diuretic and useful in preventing oxalate kidney stones and in the treatment of allergies, arthritis and asthma.
    A deficiency of can result in anemia, convulsions, impaired wound healing, inflammation of the mouth and gums, hearing problems, stunted growth, brain damage, heart and liver disease.

  • 6. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
    Cyanocobalamin is needed to prevent anemia, it aids folic acid in regulating the formation of red blood cells and help in utilization of iron. It is required for proper digestion, absorption of foods, the synthesis of protein, and the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It aids in cell formation and cellular longevity. Vitamin B12 prevents nerve damage, maintains fertility and promotes normal growth and development by maintaining the fatty sheaths that cover and protect nerve endings.
    A deficiency can be caused by mal-absorption, which is most common in the elderly and in those with digestive disorders. Deficiency can cause abnormal gait, bone loss, constipation, depression, digestive disorders, enlargement of the liver, eye disorders, inflammation of the tongue, irritability, labored breathing, moodiness, nervousness, neurological damage, palpitations, pernicious anemia, and spinal cord degeneration.

Biotin
Biotin aids in cell growth, fatty acid production, in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and in the utilization of other B-complex vitamins, Sufficient quantities are needed for healthy hair and skin. It promotes healthy sweat glands, nerve tissue and bone marrow and helps to relieve muscle pain. Biotin strengthens hoof structure by reducing irregularities in the hoof wall that compromise the integrity of the hoof strength.
Fats and oils that have been subjected to heat or exposed to the air for any length of time inhibit biotin absorption as do antibiotics, sulfa drugs. A deficiency can result in anemia, skin disorders, hair loss, heart disease and weak muscles.


Folate (Folic Acid or pteroylglutamic acid(PGA)
Folic acid is considered a brain food and is needed for energy production and the formation of red blood cells. It strengthens immunity by aiding in the proper formation and function f of white blood cells. Because it functions as a coenzyme in DNA and RNA synthesis it is important for healthy cell division and replications. It is involved in protein metabolism and treatment of folic acid anemia and builds antibodies. Folate may be the most important nutrient in regulation homocysteine levels -which is an amino acid that is naturally formed in the body as a result of the breakdown of another amino acid, Methionine. Folate is very important in pregnancy, it helps regulate embryonic and fetal nerve cell formation, which is vital for normal development and may help premature birth.

Folate works best when combined with vitamin B12 and vitamin C. Deficiency signs include anemia, digestive disturbances, growth impairment, labored breathing, weakness and birth defects. vaccine reactions, watery eyes and lack of appetite.
Cooking or heating destroys folate.

Inositol
Inositol is vital for hair growth, it has a calming effect and helps to reduce cholesterol levels. It helps prevent hardening of the arteries and is important in the formation of lecithin and the metabolism of fat and cholesterol. It helps in removal of fats from the liver. A deficiency can lead to constipation, hair loss, high blood cholesterol, skin eruptions

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is required for at least 300 metabolic functions in the body including tissue growth and repair, adrenal gland function, healthy gums, the formation of collagen – the “glue” that holds together the skin and connective tissue such as ligament and tendons. Aids in the production of anti-stress hormones and interferon – important immune-system protein, and is needed for the metabolism of folic acid, tyrosine and phenylalanine. It protects against the harmful effects of pollution, helps to prevent cancer, protects against infection and enhances immunity. Vitamin C increased the absorption of iron. It can combine with toxic substances and render them harmless so that they can be eliminated from the body. Vitamin C protects against abnormal blood clotting, may reduce the risk of cataracts and promotes the healing of wounds and burns. Vitamin C works synergistically with vitamin E and beta-carotene and have greater effects of vitamin E scavenging for dangerous free radicals in cell membranes, while vitamin C attacks free radicals in biologic fluids. These vitamins reinforce and extends each other’s antioxidant activity.

Although animals produce their own vitamin C it has been found that supplementation benefits the animal – are much less likely to develop hip dysplasia, spinal myelopathy, ruptured discs, viral diseases, and skin problems, can reduce cancer risk, boost the immune system, stimulate wound repair and reduce the risk of cataracts. Important for proper bone formation and maintenance and plays a role in preventing heart disease. Vitamin C in combination with vitamin B5 increase skin strength and fibroblastic content of scar tissue – a deficiency of both causes prolonged wound healing. Vitamin C produces mobilization of your body’s self-defense mechanisms which assist the immune system to overcome diseases.

Vitamin C along with cobalt are precursors to joint fluids, therefore can provide relief to arthritis and inflammations.

There have been testimonials of puppies with vomiting, dehydration and severe intestinal bleeding – positive parvo virus ( often deadly in puppies) given IV therapy with mega doses of vitamin C along with antibiotics and electrolytes are alive.(** Recommended that animal is supplemented with Probiotics as the stress and antibiotics are destroying the normal flora in the gut).

Vitamin C in premixed feeds and pet foods will deteriorate with storage time.

Vitamin D
Vitamin D is required for the absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus. Necessary for growth and development of bones and teeth. Protects against muscle weakness and is involved in the regulation of the heartbeat. Important in the prevention and treatment of breast and colon caner. osteoarthritis, hypocalcemia, enhances immunity and necessary for thyroid function and normal blood clotting.

Vitamin E
Vitamin E is an antioxidant that is important in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease and helps in relieving arthritis. It improves circulation, necessary for tissue repair, promotes normal blood clotting and healing, reduces scarring , reduces blood pressure, aids in preventing cataracts, improves athletic performance and relaxes leg cramps. Enhances sperm production, maintains healthy nerves and muscles while strengthening capillary walls, Promotes healthy skin and hair and protects against many diseases. Vitamin E prevents cell damages, protects other fat-soluble vitamins from destruction by oxygen and aids in the utilization of vitamin A. It retards ageing and protective from heart attacks.

The body needs zinc in order to maintain the proper level of vitamin E in the blood. Vitamin E that has oxidized a free radical can be revitalized by vitamin C and enabled to battle additional free radicals. Vitamin E supplementation has an important influence on your animal’s immune system, they will produce antibodies against vaccinations faster than animals on vitamin E-deficient diets. It is especially important to give your animal extra vitamin E in times of stress or illness, always when there is surgery or vaccinations or experienced serious shock or injury.

Vitamin E along with Selenium act as a muscle relaxant for horses that are suffering muscle spasms or whose muscles are exhausted due to over exertion. Very helpful for horses that tie up.

Horses with EPM benefit from higher dosages of Vitamin E, give 8,000-9,000 IU daily for anti-inflammatory effects and to promote the healing of damaged nerve tissues. ( Talk to us about special mixes of high vitamin E Total*!)

Vitamin K
Vitamin K is needed for the production of prothrombin – necessary for blood clotting, is essential for bone formation and repair, synthesis of osteocalcin – the protein in bone tissue on which calcium crystallizes – help prevent osteoporosis. Vitamin K plays an important role in the intestines and aids in converting glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver, promoting healthy liver function. Increased resistance to infections and help prevent cancers that target the inner linings of organs. Aids in promoting longevity.

Under normal circumstances there is little need for additional vitamin K as part is produced in the large intestine, HOWEVER, there are times when the bacteria in the large intestine are killed off, in effect cutting off production of vitamin K – often due to antibiotics, thus requiring supplementation.

Deficiency can cause abnormal and/or internal bleeding. Deficiency may result in damage to red blood cells and destruction of nerves, infertility , neuromuscular impairment, shortened red blood cells lifespan, spontaneous abortion, uterine degeneration.

Minerals
Minerals are needed for the proper composition of body fluids, formation of blood and bone, maintenance of healthy nerve function and the regulation of muscle tone, including the muscles of the cardiovascular system. They function as coenzymes enabling the body to perform its functions, including energy production, growth and healing, they are essential for the proper utilization of vitamins and other nutrients. They body must maintain its proper chemical balance which depends on the levels and ratios of certain mineral levels to one another. The level of each mineral in the body has an effect on every others, so if one is out of balance, all mineral levels are affected, if NOT corrected this starts a chain reaction of imbalances that leads to illness. These are the main minerals, Total* has numerous micro -minerals that play an important part in the balance of the horses system.

Calcium
Close to 99% of calcium in found in the skeleton, most of the remainder is in the blood. It is vital for the formation of strong bones, teeth and maintenance of healthy guns. Important in the maintenance of a regular heartbeat and in the transmission of nerve impulses. Calcium is needed for muscular growth and contraction and prevention of muscle cramps, is essential in blood clotting and helps prevent loss associated with osteoporosis, and helps keep the skin healthy. The amino acid lysine is needed for calcium absorption. A diet high in protein, fat and/or sugar affects the calcium uptake. Without adequate calcium your horse/dog would not be ale to utilize magnesium and phosphorus and to make things even more complicated the ratio of calcium to phosphorus to magnesium is very important.

If there is a deficiency in calcium -then lead can be absorbed by the body and deposited in teeth and bones, can cause aching joints, brittle hooves, heart palpitations, muscle cramps, nervousness, convulsions, depression, and hyperactivity.

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is found in every cell of the body with the highest concentration in combination with calcium in the bones and teeth. Phosphorus is necessary for your horse/dog to utilize calcium and is critical for proper growth and maintenance of the skeleton. It is needed for blood clotting, cell growth, contraction of the heart muscle, normal heart rhythm and kidney function. Assists the body in the utilization of vitamins and conversion of food to energy.

Deficiencies are rare, but can lead to anxiety, fatigue, irregular breathing, skin sensitivity, trembling weakness and weight changes.

Magnesium
Approximately 60-70% of magnesium in in the skeleton. It is the third member of the calcium-phosphorus team that builds and maintains strong bones and teeth and enables the body to use sodium and potassium. Magnesium is important for proper muscle and nerve function and helps the body absorb calcium, vitamins C, E and B-complex vitamins. Magnesium is a vital catalyst in enzyme activity, especially the activity of those enzymes involved in energy production. It is necessary to prevent the calcification of soft tissue, protects the arterial linings from stress caused by sudden blood pressure changes and plays a role in the formation of bone and in carbohydrate and mineral metabolism.

Magnesium reduces birth defects, is active in producing enzymes that prevent blood clots and helps prevent lead toxicity by drawing lead out of bone and other tissue sites. Magnesium is a heart-healthy mineral.

Deficiencies can lead to poor digestion, rapid heartbeat, seizures, often synonymous with diabetics, root of cardiovascular problems, cause of fatal cardiac arrhythmia, depression, contribute to formation of kidney stones, low levels of magnesium makes nearly every disease worse.

Sulfur
Sulfur is found everywhere in the body, with the highest concentration in the skin, hair and nails and joints. Sulfur’s high concentration in the skin makes it a key component in healing wounds. It is an acid-forming mineral that is part of the chemical structure of the amino acids methionine, cysteine, taurine and glutathione, sulfur disinfects the blood, helps the body to resist bacteria and protects the protoplasm of cells, It aids in necessary oxidation reactions in the body, protects against toxic substance and because of its ability to protect against the harmful effects of radiation and pollution, it slow the aging process. Is needed for the synthesis of collagen – principal protein that gives the skin its structural integrity.

Sulfur plays an active role in maintaining cell permeability, allowing nutrients and fluids to move in and out of cells as well as allowing waste products and toxins to exit. It is used by the body in production of insulin – regulates uptake of glucose by cells.

Sulfur is found in many of the horses natural dietary sources, however, its availability can be greatly diminished or destroyed by commercial processing. Cooking destroys sulfur – so any grain heated such as extruded feeds (most senior and pellet feeds) have no sulfur remaining in their final form. Storage also diminishes or destroys sulfur.

Sulfur is absorbed in the intestine and is depleted when intestinal bacteria are destroyed by substances such as antibiotics. Deficiency can cause coat discoloration and skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis.

Potassium & Sodium
Potassium and sodium work together to maintain normal fluid balance in the cells of your animal. Normal fluid balance in cells is needed for proper nerve and muscle functioning. They are important for a healthy nervous system and a regular heart rhythm. They help to prevent strokes, aids in proper muscle contraction maintaining stable blood pressure and transmitting electrochemical impulses and regulation of transfer of nutrients through cell membranes and blood pH.

Deficiencies will result in fatigue, listlessness, loss of equilibrium, drinking less water, poor growth, dry skin and loss of hair. Muscular paralysis, and lesions of the heart and kidney, poor coordination, recurrent infections, seizures and weight loss.

Iron
Iron’s most important function in the body is to team up with copper, vitamin B12 and protein in the production of hemoglobin and myoblobin and the oxygenation of red blood cells. It is the mineral that is found in the largest amount in the blood. It is essential for many enzymes and important for growth, required for a healthy immune system and energy production.

Deficiency is most often caused by insufficient intake, however it may result form intestinal bleeding, diets high in phosphorus, poor digestion, long-term illness, ulcers. Strenuous exercise and heavy sweat deplete iron from the body. Symptoms include anemia, brittle hair, digestive disturbances, fragile bones, hair loss.

There must be sufficient hydrochloric acid (HCL) present in the stomach in order for iron to be absorbed. Copper, manganese, molybdenum, vitamin A and B-complexes vitamins are needed for complete iron absorption. Adequate Vitamin C levels can increase iron absorption by as much as 30%.

Copper
Coppers’ many functions is to aid in the formation of bone, hemoglobin and red blood cells and works in balance with zinc and vitamin C to form elastin – an important skin protein. Is involved in the healing process, energy production, hair and skin coloring and needed for healthy nerves and joints. Copper is essential for the formation of collagen – one of the fundamental proteins making up bones, skin and connective tissue.

Deficiency signs are osteoporosis, anemia, diarrhea, general weakness, impaired respiratory function and skin sores, loss of hair and skin color, and improper bone formation.

Cobalt
Cobalt is found in Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), which is a unique relationship because Cyanocobalamin is the only vitamin that contains a trace element. Cobalt is involved in the production of red blood cells and the absorption of iron.

Deficiency in cobalt could cause an iron deficiency resulting in anemia. Adequate amounts of Vitamin B12 will give you enough cobalt.

Iodine
Iodine is essential for the production of the thyroid hormones that regulate the animals metabolism, important for physical and mental development.

Silicon
Silicon is the second most abundant element on the planet. It is necessary for the formation of collagen for bones, connective tissue, for healthy hooves, skin and hair, and for calcium absorption in the early stages of bone formation. It stimulates the immune system and inhibits the aging process in tissues. It helps heal wounds and protects against skin disorders. If your horse or dog has something foreign in their system such as worms, in infection from an abscess or bacterial infection, silicon will work to eliminate the foreign object from the system. Boron, calcium magnesium, manganese and potassium aid in the efficient utilization of silicon.

Manganese
Manganese is an antioxidant miners that is necessary for the utilization of Vitamin C, biotin, thiamin and vitamin E. It is needed for the normal reproduction, bone and cartilage growth, collagen formation, fat metabolism, pituitary gland function and the production of fatty acids. Also for healthy nerves, healthy immune system, energy production, used in the formation of cartilage and synovial fluid of the joints.

Selenium
Selenium is a great coworker. It works with vitamin E as an antioxidant to prevent heart disease, cancer and to boost the immune system and prevents the formation of free radicals that can damage the body. It plays a vital role in regulating the effects of thyroid hormone on fat metabolism. Selenium and vitamin E work synergistically to aid in the production of antibodies and to help maintain a healthy heart and liver, and is needed for tissue elasticity. Helps in the treatment of arthritis, cardiovascular disease, male infertility, cataracts. Selenium protects the body form cancer-causing substances, such as toxic metals as mercury and cadmium, by binding with them and flushing them out of the body.
Selenium deficiency has been linked to caner and heart disease, associated with exhaustion, infections, sterility.

Zinc
Zinc works alone and with copper, B-complex vitamins, vitamin A, calcium, and phosphorus in a vast number of bodily functions. It is crucial for the production of enzymes, it supports the immune system, improves antibody response to vaccines, regulates white blood cells, helps in protein digestion, and has some antioxidant and antibacterial properties, Zinc regulates the activity of oil glands which is important for healthy coat, skin, nails, hooves and protects the liver form toxins. Zinc combines with vitamin C in the production of collagen which helps in wound healing. Sufficient intake and absorption of zinc are needed to maintain the proper concentration of vitamin E in the blood, and zinc increase the absorption of vitamin A.

Deficiency of zinc may result in the loss of senses of taste and smell, cause nails and hooves to become thin, peel. Animal may become fatigued, hair loss, growth impairment, impaired night vision, increased susceptibility to infection, infertility, propensity to diabetes, skin lesions and slow wound healing. A significant amount of zinc is lost through perspiration.

Zinc Proteinate
Zinc proteinate aids in the prevention of defective keratin, the tough outer layers of the hoof.

Amino Acids
Total* supplement contains the essential amino acids that your animal requires. Amino Acids (AA) are the “building blocks” of the body, they make up proteins. They are the end products of protein digestion, they contain about 16% nitrogen. Proteins are chains of AA linked together and each protein is composed of a specific group of AA which is tailored to a unique function in the body. These proteins are not obtained directly form the diet, rather dietary protein is broken down into its constituent amino acid which the body then uses to build the specific proteins it needs. AA enable vitamins and minerals to perform their jobs properly. For example, low levels of tyrosine may lead to iron deficiency. There are about 28 AA, which 80% the liver produces, the remaining 20% must be obtained from the diet – these are essential amino acids. THUS, if the diet is not properly balanced – if it fails to supply adequate amounts of the essential amino acids it will become apparent as some type of physical disorder. It is unhealthily to increase the intake of protein to obtain the AA as it puts stress on the kidneys and liver which leads to other problems. It is much easier to obtain the Amino Acids by supplementing with Total*. Total provides the main essential amino acids for you horses diet.

  • Choline
    Choline is called a brain food. Choline is needed for the proper transmission of nerve impulses from the brain through the central nervous system as well as for liver function and lecithin formation. It aids in hormone production and minimizes excess fat in the liver because it aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism. Choline plays a very important role in cardiovascular health as well as in reproduction and fetal development.
    A deficiency can cause impaired central nervous system, cause liver and heart disease and affect the thymus gland. It may result in fatty buildup in the liver, as well as in cardiac symptoms, gastric ulcers high blood pressure, kidney and liver impairment and stunted growth.

  • Methionine
    Methionine is an essential amino acid that must be obtained from food sources. It helps the digestive system break down fats and helps to detoxify harmful agents such as lead and other heavy metals, helps diminish muscle weakness, prevents brittle hair and is beneficial for allergies. It is a powerful antioxidant, a good source of sulfur = prevents skin and hoof problems. As the levels of toxic substances in the body increase, the need for Methionine increases. Because the body used Methionine to drive a brain food called Choline, it is wise to supplement the diet with Choline to ensure the supple of Methionine is not depleted. Total* provides both of these, so there is no need to worry about depletion.

  • Lysine
    Lysine is an essential amino acid that is a necessary building block for all protein. It is needed for proper growth and bone development, aids in calcium absorption and maintains a proper nitrogen balance in adults. It aids in the production of antibodies, hormones, and enzymes and helps in collagen formation and tissue repair. Lysine is an essential amino acid and cannot be manufactured in the body, therefore adequate amounts must be supplemented in the diet.
    Deficiencies can result in anemia, enzyme disorders, hair loss, irritability, lack of energy, poor appetite, reproductive disorders, retarded growth and weight loss.

Probiotics
Probiotics are beneficial bacteria normally present in the digestive tract. They are vital for proper digestion and perform a number of other useful functions, such as preventing the the over growth of pathogens and synthesizing vitamin K.
Destruction of the beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract can occur due to any form of stress due to showing, trailering, training, heat, vaccinations, worming, injury, colic most often results in a depletion of gut movement due to reduction in the digestive enzymes.

Glucosamine
Glucosamine is a substance naturally synthesized within the body from glucose and is important for the repair of compromised cartilage. It is one of the structural elements found throughout the body which serves as a building block. When supplementing Glucosamine, the addition of vitamin C and manganese will aid in the absorption as are vitamin A and vitamin E. These vitamins and minerals are the missing link in most Glucosamine products on the market, if feeding straight glucosamine, are throwing money away as it is not easily and totally absorbed. It will reduce inflammation and stiffness, stop pain and improve mobility.

Yeast Culture
Yeast culture is an excellent source of vitamin Bs and other micronutrients. Many say it provides “undefined nutritional factors”. Horses benefit from bacterial inoculants (good bacteria) because they competitively exclude the bad microbes that decrease efficiency or cause disease. Yeast cultures stabilize the gut activity and improves digestion and disease resistance.